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Sewing Machine Fault Finder                     Sewing Machine Tension Problems

A brief history of Sewing Threads
by
 Alex Askaroff

Home            Index                Books

 

 

  Alex I Askaroff

Alex has spent a lifetime in the sewing industry and is considered one of the foremost experts of pioneering machines and their inventors. He has written extensively for trade magazines, radio, television, books and publications world wide.

Most of us know the name Singer but few are aware of his amazing life story, his rags to riches journey from a little runaway to one of the richest men of his age. The story of Isaac Merritt Singer will blow your mind, his wives and lovers his castles and palaces all built on the back of one of the greatest inventions of the 19th century. For the first time the most complete story of a forgotten giant is brought to you by Alex Askaroff.

 

           
            How old are your reels of thread?

           

 

 

 

Have you ever wondered how long sewing threads have been around?

The answer is almost as long as man has walked on two legs. The first threads would have been little more than thin leather, animal tendons, sinew or twine. Many ancient tribes knew which local plant or tree gave the best thread such as honeysuckle, reed and cactus. Clematis or Old Man's Beard was used for millennia as twine, it has amazing strength.

As the centuries went by we learned how to twist materials into thread such as fine wool and silk and then cotton, History of Cotton. Finally we mastered nylon, polyester and synthetic threads.

The first needles or bodkins were animal bone, flint and wood, later bronze and eventually steel so fine that they could pierce the most delicate silk without a mark.

Even today you can cut a thorn from a blackthorn or hawthorn bush and make a perfect needle that will pierce leather! Holly was a favourite with sewers as it has supple strength and ideal for small needles. Net makers used them right up until the 20th Century.

Today some of the traditional net maker still use wooden needles made from the holly tree which has remarkable abilities to keep its point and not break. 

For centuries the centre of the needle industry for the entire world was Redditch producing the best needles on the market such as Milward's and Able Morrall's.

Perivale Pure Silk Thread.

The Forge Mill next to Bordesley Abbey, Redditch, is well worth a visit. The museum provides a fascinating insight into the early working life of the industrial revolution where children as young as 4 worked for a living! Charles Dickens was delighted to see upon his visit that the age of children working at the Redditch Mill had risen to six!

The Redditch needle industry kept the secret of fine needle making closely guarded. There secret was in the endless polishing of the needles with fine grinding powders. The water powered machinery proved so successful that it was used for generations. 


Birmingham & Redditch were the centre of the needle industry

So how did it all start in Britain?

We must just mention Henna Wilkinson from Rhode Island, the first American woman to ever gain a patent in her country. In 1793 Henna was awarded a patent for a cotton sewing thread which she had twisted on her spinning wheel. The thread did sew that well but she did go down in history as the first inventor, however the real invention of the first super sewing thread (which led from a single mill to one of the largest companies in the world) all started in Scotland.

We must just mention why...

In 1806 nasty Napoleon Bonaparte (where the name 'Bogey Man' originally comes from, Bonepart--Boney--Bogey) was on the warpath. Children were scared with tales of 'the Bogey man is coming over the water to get you'. What horrible parents eh! He had made a blockade around the coast of Britain which made trade almost impossible.

The defeat of his fleet at Trafalgar left him embittered and out for vengeance. This stopped almost all but the most ardent smuggler from bringing goods to England. All ships were prey to the French fleet.


Heminway silk threads

In turn the silk sewing threads became scarce and incredibly expensive. A reel of silk thread would cost two days pay.


As sewing machines became more and more common Clark & Co took pains to advertise that their cotton was okay to use on the new fangled machines.

Only skilled smugglers managed to break through the blockades in the dead of night. Their vessels often painted matt black and set with sails at both ends to move silently in and out of moonlit bays.

The cost of threads rocketed as did tobacco and booze. Great years for the smugglers! Brandy for the parson and silk for the lady!

The booming silk trade had found its way to Britain with the arrival of the Huguenots when they fled from persecution. Many focused themselves around the Brick Lane area of London.


I love this silk thread advert. How to catch your man on a Leap Year!

By 1851 Britain had over 100,000 silk weavers. Today there is only one working silk mill left in England at Whitchurch.

A saying emerged around that time. 'We are all born Adam's children but silk makes the difference'.

However we are jumping ahead, stay with me now! It is now 1812 and Britain is being blockaded and silk, the normal sewing thread is a silly price. Hanks of silk from China and Asia could not get to England and the price soared! An alternative was needed and fast! Everything was being reused even old tarred ship ropes were teased apart and rewoven.

With no hanks and skeins of silk business was suffering all over the country. Now we travel to Paisley in Scotland. In fact many of the old London silk weavers also travelled North in search of work taking their silk weaving skills with them.

Initially the local Paisley weavers had found a market making and supplying the larger cities with woven shawls, a 'must have' item and still popular today. These cottage industries around Paisley needed regular supplies of threads.

Plants produced Hemp, Hessian and Cotton and Paisley had become a centre for hand woven linen manufacture, with over 30,000 people being involved in this growing cottage industry. From the 1700's Mills were popping up like mushrooms on a damp August evening in Scotland and by 1760 there were over 100 mills twisting linen thread, but the times were a changing and cotton was coming to the town.

Clark & Co
Anchor Mills
Paisley

in 1812, James and Patrick Clark were running a mill supply business in Paisley and the business was suffering badly from the lack of supplies. Napoleon's economic sanctions were crippling a country used to its luxury goods.

Patrick Clark came to our rescue inventing a method to twist cotton threads together to produce an excellent sewing thread for most applications. Patrick had been experimenting for years with different yarns for thread, flax proved too rough, wool to thick, Heddle twine to variable but with cotton Patrick Clark (sometimes referred to as Peter Clark) hit the nail on the head working out a new method of twisting and teasing cotton into a sewing thread.

The best cotton was from America and colonies of The Empire. Cotton could also be recycled from fabric so there was not so much of a shortage. The Clark Family, already supplying other threads from their mills started to supply the cotton sewing thread that old man Patrick had perfected.

The Clark Family were probably the first business in the world to mass produce cotton thread for sewing.


Clark's Stranded Cotton. These skeins of thread were how most thread was supplied before the invention of the spool.

Invention of the wooden thread spool

Right, we have to have a quick history lesson here to lay the foundation of how thread came about. To hand weave a small bale of cotton or weft into thread could take weeks of hard work by hand. For most of history cotton and other material was hand woven for use in the manufacture of cloth and from early civilisation right up until the 17th century things had not changed that much but then BINGO. Cotton was first spun on machinery in England in 1730.

You can just see the spools of thread on this Spinning Jenny. From this you can see how the smaller wooden spools evolved into the thread spools we know today.

James Hargreaves invention of The Spinning Jenny in 1764, changed all that as it sped up the process of cotton thread manufacture. This was basically a response to keep up with John Kay's Flying Shuttle of 1733 which had sped up cloth manufacture which in turn had increased yarn and thread demand by the weavers (by doubling their productivity). The Spinning Jenny could supply that demand.

Next, The Spinning Mule, invented by Samuel Crompton in 1779, spun fibres into yarn and thread even faster. It was a similar type of machine that spun the cotton thread onto cotton spools for hand sewing and later sewing machine use.

Engine

 

A Massachusetts man, Eli Whitney, secured a patent on the cotton gin in 1793. Though patent  records show that the first cotton gin could have been built by Noah Homes two years before Whitney’s patent. 

 

The cotton gin, where we get the abbreviation of en--gine, could work 10 times faster than hand.The modern world had arrived.

The mechanised gin, not the liquid stuff boys! Made it possible to supply large quantities of cotton fibre to the expanding textile industry.

 

It was sometime around 1820 that another invention came about that lasted right up until the 1960's. Wooden cotton reels. Within a few years wooden cotton reels were being produced all over Europe but the very first consistent wooden reels that held lengths of thread were produced by the Clark Family in Paisley.

The Clark family turned birch wood spools from the Scottish forests and the smaller wooden spools were perfect for holding sewing thread. Basically a smaller version of the spindles used in the Flying Shuttle.

I would love to be corrected on this point so do please mail me: alexsussex@aol.com.

On these spools you could have your thread supplied. The spools had a deposit on them (initially half-a-penny) so when you ran out of thread, if you brought the spool back, you could have it refilled. This was a stroke of marketing genius by the Clark Family as most people, finding how good the spools worked, took them back to the factory and naturally bought their cotton thread there at the same time.


W J Knox's linen thread was made from flax in kilbirnie, Scotland. Its success lay in a special reverse twist in the linen thread that allowed it to stay strong and supple.

The thread was wound onto the wooden reels with a spooling machine (some say invented by John Clark of Mile End Glasgow, though Barbour Thread also have a claim). So from this period the thinner cotton thread was stored for sale on specially fabricated wooden spools and the cotton reel was born.

The Belding Corticelli Thread Co
Belding, Michigan

The making of wooden spools became automated with industrial expansion and consequently cheaper. The spools could always be returned for the deposit on them, refundable on return of the spool. It was only when larger customers started ordering cotton reels in bulk that Clarks started putting labels on them. The first spools from the 1820's were just plain old Birch wood.


Crochet & Tatting Cottons were the ideal substitute for real silk and sewed well

Cotton Reels, penny a bucket!

Mass production put an end to deposits on cotton reels and they became cheap enough to give away with the thread. I remember meeting a Paisley girl who as a child would hear the bell of the 'Paisley Cart' ringing along her street. Every Monday the horse drawn cart, containing all the broken and mis-formed or damaged wooden spools from the factories, were sold for a penny-a-bucket to locals for fire kindling.


           Clark & Co Anchor Mills Paisley

J & P Coats

Now I believe that we also have James Coats from the same area. James was from a family of weavers and seeing the success of Clark's opened his factory near his home in 1826 at Ferguslie Mill, Paisley, Scotland, and never looked back. In fact by the 1820's there were at least 15 mills manufacturing cotton in Paisley.

 

Cotton Mills & factories Act

In 1819 Sir Robert Peel introduced The Cotton Mills & factories Act to regulate the use of children in the cotton mills and other industries. It forbade children under the age of nine from working in the cotton mills, however families tried to get around this law and children were taught to lie about their age to get work. It was a poorly enforced law.

After his retirement in 1830 his son's James (another James) and Peter Coats continued the Coats enterprise and from this point on all their threads were marked J & P Coats and so two of the biggest names in thread were established in Paisley and all because of the Bogey Man.

An early advertising card showing Gulliver taking thread to the Lilliputians.

The sewing machines are coming!

With the invention of the sewing machine threads had to change. Initially in 1846 Elias Howe had invented a sewing machine that worked but it was really Isaac Singer who changed the world with his amazing machine of 1851. As his machines spread across the world (and made him rich) a thread was needed that worked on them.


Perivale pure silk thread was king until the invention of high quality polyester threads that copied silks ability to give with the fabric, and its shine that reflected the material into which it was sewn, making it almost invisible.

The original two, three and four cord hand sewing thread was not strong enough for sewing machines and unravelled as it sewed, so later George A Clark, one of the grandson's, invented a six cord thread specially designed for these new fangled gadgets.

Merrick Thread Co’s Best Sea Island Patent Shuttle Cotton,
Warranted 200 Yards, for Singer New Family Machine.

George had also found a way to add a little elasticity to his reels of cotton thread that allowed the thread to slide through the sewing machine thread guides with ease. Until the invention of the superior polyester threads, Clark's cotton threads were simply the best available all around the world.


O N T Our New Thread but why 1812? There were no sewing machines then but it showed the world that Clark's were the first!

The six-cord soft thread sewed very well and helped the sewing machine industry flourish compared to the wiry old hand-sewing stuff. The new 'extra quality' thread sewed on hand or sewing machine! 

Clark sewing thread circa 1860

This thread was labelled and each reel was marked with the initials "ONT" Our New Thread. Simple eh! I would love to find one of these reels as it would date it to around 1850.

By 1860 the Clark's factory at Paisley was booming. They won awards for their six cord threads at London and Brussels. They won gold at the Exposition Universelle in Paris.

Clark & Co became the unrivalled sewing thread for machines and smoke from the great factory darkened the Paisley sky. It was called Anchor Mills.


Anchor Mills, Paisley. Home of Clark & Co

Silk threads were around years before Clark and Coats so look carefully in your sewing box, you may have an ancient reel or skein of thread in there.

1855 Clark's ONT Our New Thread


Our New Thread was specially designed for the new fangled gadgets of the age called sewing machines. However they were careful to market the thread as suitable for old fashioned hand sewing as well.

The Spool Cotton Company

By the 1890's the two Paisley thread companies joined and become one company, Coats & Clark became the Spool Cotton Company though both industries kept their separate identities when selling threads (to corner the expanding markets of the world). They traded as separately as Clark Thread Company J & P Coats.

By the outbreak of The First World War Coats had become one of the largest industrial companies in the entire world and all because of Napoleon!

In 1931 John B Clark was elected president of the combined companies as it expanded globally until in 1952 the companies merged completely becoming Coats & Clark Incorporated.

Dewhurst Sylko History


Dewhurst Three Shells Sylko thread.

The Dewhurst Cotton company started with Thomas Dewhurst who bought a corn mill at Elslack, near Skipton, in 1789. He converted it into a cotton mill and spun cotton, using the river running by the factory to power his machines. More mills followed as the business expanded, the most famous being Belle Vue Mills in Skipton, built by John Dewhurst in 1828. From Belle Vue Mills the threads were shipped by canal across the country to docks and then exported across The Empire. The most important reason for the British Empire was worldwide trade all centered around our small island. Now let's step back a little.

John and Isaac Dewhurst, son's of Thomas Dewhurst, carried on the family business and became famous for their sewing cotton.

Dewhurst's enormous mill at Skipton with its 225 ft Chimney set the pace of time in the town with its 'mill buzzer' roaring out over the houses. The company perfected a wet twist cotton using three balanced cords. The thread was then 'gas shaved' before mercerisation to remove the fine whiskers of thread that made normal threads so fluffy. Sylko Three Shells Thread earned a superb reputation and many reels survive to this day.

Right up until the 1950's Dewhurst's employed over 500 people in the Skipton area but once again cheap imports and rising production costs slowly caused the decline of the business in Britain.


Dewhurst to Coats, to ECC, toViyella, to Calico Printers, to Tootal in 1973

English Cotton Company

British Sewing Cotton Company

Marketed under the Dewhurst Sylko brand, it eventually became part of the The English Cotton Company. An amalgamation of over 14 companies in 1897 was headed by Algernon Dewhurst (John's Grandson).

Sylko, available in over 500 shades, became internationally famous but Coats, who eventually held the valuable Sylko name, (that had become so renowned) decided to discontinue it. No one has understood why such a valuable trade name was abruptly killed off and it must have been for a really important reason.

It all gets a bit messy from here on, Dewhurst, part of the Ingham-Dewhurst-Illingworth Group was sucked up by Coats (Coats Viyella) after English Sewing Cotton or English Cotton Company or The British Sewing Cotton Company, sold out to Calico Printers who became Tootal in 1973.

Someone probably still has the rights to the Sylko brand and are missing a marketing trick. An explanation would be invaluable so if you know why Sylko was stopped as a brand please do mail me: alexsussex@aol.com

Sylko Crochet Thread

Barbour Campbell Threads Ltd

The earliest real of thread I have come across so far is a Barbour linen thread of 1784. Incidentally the same year that John Barbour (amazingly another Scotsman from Paisley) founded his business at The Lisburn Thread Mill, County Antrim, Ireland. Barbour's home-spun Irish yarn gained a huge reputation for quality for decades and was used for just about everything from stitching up humans on the operating tables to parachute cord. Barbour's Finest Cat Gut was in regular use in most hospitals.


Barbour's Flax Thread was one of the strongest natural threads being woven and twisted from the stalk of the flax plant. Many thanks to Caroline Harris for the advert.

Pop goes the weasel

In the cloth manufacturing industry the yarn winder was called a weasel and to measure the amount of yarn wound a simple device on the weasel made a 'popping' sound at regular intervals so that the person winding could keep track of how much thread had been wound. There are many versions of the old rhyme but it is generally believed that it originated from the cloth industry in the north of England where children were regularly paid to wind the skeins of thread on the weasel. Here is one version from Skipton, circa 1830.

Half a pound of tuppeny rice,

Half a pound of treacle,

That's the way the money goes,

'Pop' goes the weasel.

A penny for a spool of thread,

A penny for a needle,

That's the way the money goes,

'Pop' goes the weasel.

Mummy taught me how to sew,

And how to count the cotton,

That's the way the money goes,

'Pop' goes the weasel.

News Flash!

Most of us know the name Singer but few are aware of his amazing life story, his rags to riches journey from a little runaway to one of the richest men of his age. The story of Isaac Merritt Singer will blow your mind, his wives and lovers his castles and palaces all built on the back of one of the greatest inventions of the 19th century. For the first time the most complete story of a forgotten giant is brought to you by Alex Askaroff.

Well, that's it folks, I hope you enjoyed our little journey through the history of thread. Do let me know if you have found this useful, want to add something, or just enjoyed it: alexsussex@aol.com

All Alex's books are now on: www.crowsbooks.com

Both books, Sussex Born and Bred, and Corner of the Kingdom
 are now available instantly on Kindle and iPad.

      

Fancy a funny read: Ena Wilf  & The One-Armed Machinist

A brilliant slice of 1940's life: Spies & Spitfires


Alex's stories are now available to keep. Click on the picture for more information.

Well, that's it folks, I hope you enjoyed our little journey through the history of thread. Do let me know if you have found this useful, want to add something, or just enjoyed it: alexsussex@aol.com

Dear Alex,
Thank you for your very informative excellent in depth research. I read it with pleasure as I am very interested. My husband George Clark is descended from the Clark Thread Manufacturing family.

His great, great grandfather was George Clark who married Ann Henry in Paisley 12 Jun 1802 at Low Church Paisley. Their eldest son George born about 1823 in Paisley married Catherine Dunlop Ballantyne 13 Jun 1855 in Edinburgh.

His father was listed as George Clark, Designer and Thread Manufacturer, deceased. I know he was not a direct descendant of the original owner of the factory. Family history has it that the eldest son in this family is always called George with no second name. This makes tracing George Clark's line further very difficult.  He called his eldest son George and his second daughter Jane Rae Clark.

Using Scottish naming history this should give his parents but there are so many George Clarks in that period I have had no luck. He named his second son John and eldest daughter Rachel Barclay Clark and this exactly matches Ann Henry's parents.

George Clark born 1823 was a manufacturer of sewed muslins, George Clark & Co. in Glasgow. I have records from 1851 up to 1872 when he died leaving three young sons.

Bev Clark
bcl60185@bigpond.net.au


Thanks, I enjoyed the info and history lessons-- never knew that Napoleon was the basis for the Bogey Man!  And I've always wondered what O.N.T. stood for...
I collected old cotton and silk thread as I sew doll clothing by hand for antique French dolls. I always test its strength first by pulling it hard. Most of the time it passes the test-- and some if the threads are over 100 years old.

By the way, the Belding Cortecelli (sp?) thread company was located in Belding, Michigan, which is very close to where I live, in Grand Rapids. The tall smoke stack is still there, and I believe the mill is now protected.

Thanks again, Marcia

 

Dear Alex,

I am a member of an antique club and will be responsible for a lesson on antiques in March or April. I will be sharing your article about the history of thread with the other members. Thank you for making it available.

Lana

Hi Alex
I loved coming across this information.  I have family History connected to this family.
Thanks for publishing it.
Barbara Simmons

See Alex Askaroff on Youtube: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=3mJYS44Vc8c&list=UL

 

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